Nine Plays Of The Modern Theater Books Pdf File
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Nine Plays Of The Modern Theater: A Collection Of Masterpieces By Renowned Playwrights
If you are looking for a book that showcases some of the most influential and innovative plays of the modern theater, you might want to check out Nine Plays Of The Modern Theater, edited by Harold Clurman. This book contains the scripts of nine significant plays written between 1944 and 1975 by playwrights such as Bertolt Brecht, Samuel Beckett, Friedrich Durrenmatt, Jean Genet, Eugene Ionesco, Slawomir Mrozek, Tom Stoppard, and David Mamet.
These plays represent a variety of genres, styles, and themes, from the epic drama of Brecht's The Caucasian Chalk Circle to the absurd comedy of Ionesco's Rhinoceros, from the existentialist tragedy of Beckett's Waiting for Godot to the political satire of Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. They explore topics such as war, justice, identity, power, language, and art, challenging the conventions and expectations of both theater and society.
In his introduction, Clurman provides a brief overview of each play and its author, as well as some insights into the historical and cultural context of their creation. He also discusses the role of the director and the actor in bringing these plays to life on stage. Clurman was himself a renowned theater critic, director, and producer, who worked with many of the playwrights featured in this book.
Nine Plays Of The Modern Theater is a valuable resource for anyone interested in the history and development of modern theater. It is also a great way to enjoy some of the most brilliant and original works of dramatic literature ever written. You can find this book in PDF format online at Archive.org[^1^] [^2^] or Google Books[^3^]. Alternatively, you can buy a paperback copy from Amazon or other online retailers.
In this section, we will briefly summarize each play and highlight some of its main features and themes. We will also provide some background information on the author and the original production of the play.
The Caucasian Chalk Circle by Bertolt Brecht
This play is a parable about justice, compassion, and motherhood, set in a war-torn region of Georgia. It tells the story of Grusha, a peasant girl who rescues and raises an abandoned baby boy, Michael, who is the son of the governor and his wife. When the war ends, the governor's wife returns and claims Michael as her own. A trial is held to determine who is the true mother of the child, presided over by Azdak, a drunken and unconventional judge. He uses a chalk circle to test the bond between the women and the boy, with surprising results.
Brecht was a German playwright and theater director who developed a style of epic theater that aimed to provoke critical thinking and social change among the audience. He used techniques such as alienation, narration, songs, and placards to break the illusion of realism and expose the contradictions of society. He wrote this play in 1944 while in exile in the United States, but it was first performed in 1948 in Munich.
Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett
This play is a tragicomedy about two vagabonds, Vladimir and Estragon, who are waiting for a mysterious figure named Godot on a barren road. They pass the time by engaging in absurd conversations, arguments, games, and rituals. They are occasionally visited by Pozzo, a cruel master who drags his slave Lucky by a rope, and a boy who brings messages from Godot. Godot never arrives, but Vladimir and Estragon keep waiting for him day after day.
Beckett was an Irish writer who wrote in both English and French. He was influenced by existentialism, surrealism, and modernism. He explored themes such as meaninglessness, futility, despair, and human condition in his works. He wrote this play in French in 1948-49 and translated it into English in 1954. It was first performed in 1953 in Paris and received mixed reactions from critics and audiences.
The Visit by Friedrich Durrenmatt
This play is a dark satire about greed, revenge, and justice, set in a poor town called Gullen. It tells the story of Claire Zachanassian, a wealthy and powerful woman who returns to her hometown after many years. She offers to donate one billion dollars to the town on one condition: that they kill Alfred Ill, her former lover who betrayed her when she was young and pregnant. The townspeople are initially shocked and outraged by her proposal, but gradually succumb to her temptation as they realize how much they need the money.
Durrenmatt was a Swiss writer who wrote in German. He was influenced by expressionism, absurdism, and grotesque realism. He explored themes such as morality, responsibility, justice, and human nature in his works. He wrote this play in 1955-56 and it was first performed in 1956 in Zurich. aa16f39245